Bailey DB Jr, Hebbeler K, Spiker D, Scarborough A, Mallik S, Nelson L. Thirty-six-month outcomes for families of children who have disabilities and participated in early intervention. Pediatrics. 2005; 116(6): 1346-52.
This study assessed family outcomes at the end of early intervention (near the child’s third birthday). Results suggest that early intervention provides important supports for families of young children with disabilities.

Bear LM. Early identification of infants at risk for developmental disabilities. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2004; 51(3): 685-701.
This article describes why early identification of infants at risk for developmental delay is of the utmost importance to initiate appropriate intervention. Although early detection can be a challenge, the primary care practitioner is in the ideal position to recognize and refer these children.

Blauw‐Hospers CH, Hadders‐Algra M. A systematic review of the effects of early intervention on motor development. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2005; 47.6: 421-432.
This systematic review studies the effect of early intervention, starting between birth and a corrected age of 18 months, on motor development in infants at high risk for, or with, developmental motor disorders. Authors concluded the type of intervention that might be beneficial for infants at preterm age differs from the type that is effective in infants who have reached at least term age. Preterm infants seem to benefit most from intervention that aims at mimicking the intrauterine environment, such as NIDCAP intervention. After term age, intervention by means of specific or general developmental programs has a positive effect on motor development.

Broomfield J, Dodd B. Is speech and language therapy effective for children with primary speech and language impairment? Report of a randomized control trial. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2011; 46.6: 628-640.
The study considered outcomes of treatment versus no treatment. The study found that an average of 6 hours of speech and language therapy in a 6-month period can produce significant improvement in performance, and it has been shown to be more effective than no treatment over the same 6-month period for children with primary speech and/or language impairment. Moreover, speech and language therapy intervention is demonstrated as being more effective than no intervention for children with primary speech and/or language impairment.

Edwards SL, Sarwark JF. Infant and Child Motor Development. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 2005; 434: 33-39.
An emphasis has been placed on early detection and referral for intervention, which has been shown to enhance the lives of the infant or child and his or her family. Appropriate recognition of delay is necessary for referral to early intervention services, which serve to help these children overcome or improve motor dysfunction and to help families grow more confident in caring for children with special needs.

Fucile S, Gisel EG. Sensorimotor interventions improve growth and motor function in preterm infants. Neonatal Network: The Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2010; 29.6: 359-366.
This study assessed the effect of an oral, a tactile/kinesthetic, and a combined intervention on preterm infants’ weight gain and motor function and to determine whether the combined intervention has an additive/synergistic effect on outcomes. Authors concluded that single and combined interventions improved growth and motor function. The combined intervention, because of the shorter duration of each modality, did not lead to additive/synergistic effects, suggesting that the duration of the sensorimotor input is as important as its target in achieving defined outcomes.

Hurley DS, Sukal-Moulton T, Msall ME, Gaebler-Spira D, Krosschell KJ, Dewald JP. The cerebral palsy research registry: Development and progress toward national collaboration in the United States. J Child Neurol. 2011; 26(12): 1534-1541.
This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad.

Kirk MA, Rhodes RE. Motor skill interventions to improve fundamental movement skills of preschoolers with developmental delay. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2011; 28(3):210-32.
The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with a developmental delay. This review supports the utility of interventions to improve fundamental movement skills of preschoolers with developmental delay.

McManus BM, Kotelchuck M. The Effect of Aquatic Therapy on Functional Mobility of Infants and Toddlers in Early Intervention. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2007; 19.4: 275-282.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aquatic therapy (AT) as an adjunct to home-based early intervention (EI) on differences in children’s functional mobility. Authors concluded that AT is a useful adjunct to EI to improve children’s functional mobility.

Moeller MP. Early Intervention and Language Development in Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Pediatrics. 2000; 106(3): 1-9.
This study examined the relationship between age of enrollment in intervention and language outcomes at 5 years of age in a group of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Significantly better language scores were associated with early enrollment in intervention. High levels of family involvement correlated with positive language outcomes, and, conversely, limited family involvement was associated with significant child language delays at 5 years of age, especially when enrollment in intervention was late. The results suggest that success is achieved when early identification is paired with early interventions that actively involve families.

Petronic I, et al. Congenital muscular torticollis in children: distribution, treatment duration and outcome. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2010; 46.2: 153.
This study evaluated the proportion of left and right congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) in both genders and age groups of the patients as well as to evaluate the duration of physical therapy and treatment outcome in observed population. Authors concluded that torticollis is frequent in both genders and age groups. Younger children have lower treatment duration and better treatment outcome.

Scherzer AL, et al. Global perspective on early diagnosis and intervention for children with developmental delays and disabilities. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2012; 54.12: 1079-1084.
This review finds that early diagnosis and intervention programs are essential to ameliorate developmental delays and disabilities, and are feasible in developing countries and organizations. The authors state the incorporation of early evaluation and intervention programs into routine pediatric care is likely to have the most impact on the quality of life of these children.

van Vlimmeren LA, et al. Effect of pediatric physical therapy on deformational plagiocephaly in children with positional preference: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2008; 162.8: 712.
Findings from this study indicate a 4-month standardized pediatric physical therapy program to treat positional preference significantly reduced the prevalence of severe deformational plagiocephalycompared with usual care.

Williams J, Holmes CA. Improving the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. J Child Health Care. 2004; 8(1): 34-46.
Findings from this review article indicate early identification is one of the challenges facing health visitors or child health nurses. Authors suggest that if they can utilize the knowledge and experience of parents, the opportunities for early identification and intervention would be dramatically improved.