Research: Sensory Integration/Processing Effect on Learning
Ayres AJ. Effect of sensory integrative therapy on the coordination of children with choreoathetoid movements. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1977; 31(5): 291–293.
This study affirms that children with learning issues, SI deficits and choreoathetosis (involuntary movements) who received SI therapy developed better eye to hand coordination.
Ayres AJ. Improving academic scores through sensory integration. Journal of Learning Disabilities.1972; 5(6):338–343.
This article explains how a group of children with learning issues improved academic test performance after involvement in an SI intervention program. Children with auditory language problems, and others with more generalized issues, made most significant gains.
Hoehn TP, Baumeister AA. A critique of the application of sensory integration therapy to children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 1994; 27(6): 338–350.
The present article critically examines the related issues of whether children with learning disabilities differentially exhibit concomitant problems in sensory integration, and whether such children are helped in any way by means specific to SI therapy.
Humphries T, Wright M, McDougall B, Vertes J. The efficacy of sensory integration therapy for children with learning disability. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 1990; 10(3): 1–17.
This study identifies SI therapy as effective in providing significant gains for children with learning and SI issues, compared with perceptual motor training (a series of physical activities to help a child’s gaps get filled in their information processing system).
Humphries T, Wright M, Snider L, McDougall B. A comparison of the effectiveness of sensory integrative therapy and perceptual–motor training in treating children with learning disabilities. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1992; 1: 31–40.
Perceptual motor training and sensory integration therapy were shown to be effective compared to no treatment in children with learning disabilities and sensory integrative dysfunction.
Koenig KP, Rudney SG. Performance challenges for children and adolescents with difficulty processing and integrating sensory information: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy.2010; 64(3): 430-442.
Results suggest that children and adolescents with sensory integration difficulties exhibit functional performance difficulties in key areas of occupation. However, further study is needed to tie difficulties to specific sensory and motor issues.
Mangeot SD, Miller LJ, McIntosh DN, Mc-Grath-Clarke J, Simon J, Hagerman RJ, Goldson E. Sensory modulation dysfunction in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 2001; 43: 399-406.
This study investigates presence of sensory modulation dysfunction (intense sensation seeking or sensory avoidance to harmless sensory input) in children with ADHD. Study findings underline the importance of considering sensory processing abilities in children with ADHD.
Marco EJ, Khatibi K, Hill SS, Siegel B, Arroyo MS, Dowling AF, Neuhaus JM, Sherr EH, Hinkley, LNB, Nagarajan, SS . Children with autism show reduced somatosensory response: An MEG study. Autism Research. 2012; 5: 340-351.
This study examines the somatosensory cortical responses in children with autism and suggests that early differences in somatosensory processing will affect later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response.
Polatajko HJ, Law M, Miller J, Schaffer R, Macnab J. The effect of a sensory integration program on academic achievement, motor performance, and self-esteem in children identified as learning disabled: Results of a clinical trial. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 1991; 11(3): 155–176.
A study assigned children aged 6-8 with sensory integration (SI) dysfunction to 3 groups: 35 used sensory modalities, 32 received psychomotor (PM) training, and 13 no intervention. SI and PM administered one hour per week for six months proved equally effective in improving academic and motor performance but had little effect on self-esteem.
Sanger TD, Chen D, Delgado MR, Gaebler-Spira D, Hallett M, Mink JW. Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(5): 2159-2167.
The purpose of the meeting was to establish terminology and definitions for 4 aspects of motor disorders that occur in children: weakness, reduced selective motor control, ataxia, and deficits of praxis. The purpose of the definitions is to assist communication between clinicians, select homogeneous groups of children for clinical research trials, facilitate the development of rating scales to assess improvement or deterioration with time, and eventually to better match individual children with specific therapies.
Stonefelt LL, Stein F. Sensory integration techniques applied to children with learning disabilities: An outcome study. Occupational Therapy International. 1998; 5(4): 252–272.
This article shares survey results among parents and teachers of children with learning challenges associated with SI issues, and occupational therapists. Authors point out that SI treatment is effective for addressing learning issues – especially when combined with other relevant treatment methods.
Wilson B, Kaplan K, Fellowes S, Gruchy C, Faris P. The efficacy of sensory integration treatment compared to tutoring. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 1992; 12(1):1-36.
This study points out that SI treatment can be as effective as academic tutoring for children with motor and learning difficulties.